Written by almost 100 experts from many countries, this award winning text is the first reference work to chart the full extent of this horrific subject with objectivity and authority.
The Encyclopedia of Genocide is the first reference work to chart the full extent of this horrific subject with objectivity and authority. The Nazi Holocaust; the genocides in Armenia, Cambodia, Rwanda, and the former Yugoslavia; and the eradication of indigenous peoples around the world are all covered in A–Z entries, written by almost 100 experts from many countries.
Other topics include treatment of survivors; the bewildering variety of definitions of genocide; detection, investigation, and prevention; psychology and ideology; the often contentious literature on the subject; scholars and organizations; and the important and controversial topic of genocide denial.
Among the wide range of contributors are Peter Balakian, Yehuda Bauer, M. Cherif Bassiouni, Michael Berenbaum, Ward Churchill, Vahakn Dadrian, Helen Fein, Ted Robert Gurr, Ian Hancock, Barbara Harff, Irving Louis Horowitz, Kurt Jonassohn, Ben Kiernan, David Krieger, René Lemarchand, Deborah Lipstadt, Franklin Littell, Robert Jay Lifton, Jack Porter, R.J. Rummel, Roger Smith, Colin Tatz, Elie Wiesel, and Simon Wiesenthal.
Through powerful first-person accounts, scholarly analysis, and compelling narrative, Century of Genocide details the causes and ramifications of the genocides perpetrated in the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. Historical context provides the necessary background on the actors and victims to help us better understand these episodes of atrocious political violence.
The third edition has been carefully updated and features new chapters on the genocides in Darfur, in Guatemala, and against indigenous peoples the world over. The volume concludes with a consideration of the methods of prevention and intervention of future genocides.
Edited by the leading historian of the Republic of Armenia, this is the definitive history of an extraordinary country – from its earliest foundations, through the Crusades, the resistance to Ottoman and Tsarist rule, the collapse of the independent state, its brief re-emergence after World War I, its subjugation by the Bolsheviks, and the establishment of the new Republic in 1991. Written by the foremost experts on each period in Armenia’s history, this book is a major contribution to understanding the complexities of Transcaucasia. Armenia is a cradle of civilization situated on one of the world’s most turbulent crossroads. This volume examines the question of Armenian origins and traces domestic and international relations, society and culture through the five dynastic periods, spanning nearly two thousand years. The challenge facing the Armenian people was to maintain as much freedom as possible under the shadow of powerful neighbouring empires. The adoption of Christianity had a permanent impact on the course of Armenian history and culture. These were the heroic, colourful and harsh feudal centuries of Armenia.
John Evans, formerly U.S. Ambassador to Armenia, gained notoriety in 2005 by publicly dissenting from the stated policy of the Bush and previous Administrations on the 90-year-old issue of the Armenian Genocide. A veteran of the U.S. Foreign Service, Ambassador Evans had no Armenian ancestors or family connections, but over the course of his historical studies and diplomatic career, became convinced that a gross injustice was being perpetrated against the Armenians through the denialist policies of the Turkish Government and the U.S. Government’s tacit acceptance of them. He decided to take a measured public stand, but then paid for his “heresy” by being dismissed from his post and forced into early retirement, although not without a fight over the issue in the U.S. Congress.
This publication includes the “core materials” that informed U.S. officials in Washington, D.C. about the senseless mass killing of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire. Recipients of this information included Secretaries of State William Jennings Bryan and Robert Lansing, as well as President Woodrow Wilson. The documents in this book provide a first-hand look at the efforts of U.S. consuls and the American Ambassador in Constantinople to engage the U.S. government in ending the systematic destruction of the Armenian people. Sadly, these efforts were ultimately unsuccessful, the massacres continued, and most Armenians perished as a result. However, the information in these documents did spark an unprecedented American humanitarian campaign that, in many ways, marked the entry of the U.S. on the world stage as a humanitarian power. U.S. consulates were used to channel aid into the Ottoman provinces and disburse it through American and other missionaries, while providing shelter to hundreds of Armenians throughout this period. The formation of Near East Relief by an Act of Congress was a direct result of this effort. Armenians may never have recovered from their losses between 1915 and 1923 were it not for the support they received from the United States.
The destruction of the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire in 1915-16 was the greatest atrocity of World War I. Around one million Armenians were killed, and the survivors were scattered across the world. Although it is now a century old, the issue of what most of the world calls the Armenian Genocide of 1915 is still a live and divisive issue that mobilizes Armenians across the world, shapes the identity and politics of modern Turkey, and has consumed the attention of U.S. politicians for years.
Introducing new evidence from more than 600 secret Ottoman documents, this book demonstrates in unprecedented detail that the Armenian Genocide and the expulsion of Greeks from the late Ottoman Empire resulted from an official effort to rid the empire of its Christian subjects. Presenting these previously inaccessible documents along with expert context and analysis, Taner Akçam’s most authoritative work to date goes deep inside the bureaucratic machinery of Ottoman Turkey to show how a dying empire embraced genocide and ethnic cleansing. Although the deportation and killing of Armenians was internationally condemned in 1915 as a “crime against humanity and civilization,” the Ottoman government initiated a policy of denial that is still maintained by the Turkish Republic. The case for Turkey’s “official history” rests on documents from the Ottoman imperial archives, to which access has been heavily restricted until recently. It is this very source that Akçam now uses to overturn the official narrative.
Starting in early 1915, the Ottoman Turks began deporting and killing hundreds of thousands of Armenians in the first major genocide of the twentieth century. By the end of the First World War, the number of Armenians in what would become Turkey had been reduced by 90 percent―more than a million people. A century later, the Armenian Genocide remains controversial but relatively unknown, overshadowed by later slaughters and the chasm separating Turkish and Armenian interpretations of events. In this definitive narrative history, Ronald Suny cuts through nationalist myths, propaganda, and denial to provide an unmatched account of when, how, and why the atrocities of 1915–16 were committed. Drawing on archival documents and eyewitness accounts, this is an unforgettable chronicle of a cataclysm that set a tragic pattern for a century of genocide and crimes against humanity.
With its analytical introductory essays, more than 140 individual entries, a historical timeline, and primary documents, this book provides an essential reference volume on the Armenian Genocide.
The Armenian Genocide that began in World War I, during the drive to transform the plural Ottoman Empire into a monoethnic Turkey, removed a people from its homeland and erased most evidence of their 3000-yearold material and spiritual culture. For the rest of this century, changing world events, calculated silence, and active suppression of memory have overshadowed the initial global outrage and have threatened to make this calamity “the forgotten genocide” of world history. Fourteen leading scholars here examine the Armenian Genocide from a variety of perspectives to refute those efforts and show how remembrance and denial have shaped perceptions of the event. Many of the chapters draw on archival records and court proceedings to review the precursors and process of the genocide, examine German complicity, and share the responses of victims, perpetrators, and bystanders.
Between 1915 and 1923, over one million Armenians died, victims of a genocidal campaign that is still denied by the Turkish government. Thousands of other Armenians suffered torture, brutality, deportation. Yet their story has received scant attention. Through interviews with a hundred elderly Armenians, Donald and Lorna Miller give the “forgotten genocide” the hearing it deserves. Survivors raise important issues about genocide and about how people cope with traumatic experience. Much here is wrenchingly painful, yet it also speaks to the strength of the human spirit.
In this national bestseller, the critically acclaimed author Peter Balakian brings us a riveting narrative of the massacres of the Armenians in the 1890s and of the Armenian Genocide in 1915 at the hands of the Ottoman Turks. Using rarely seen archival documents and remarkable first-person accounts, Balakian presents the chilling history of how the Turkish government implemented the first modern genocide behind the cover of World War I. And in the telling, he resurrects an extraordinary lost chapter of American history.
This book examines the confiscation of Armenian properties during the genocide and subsequent attempts to retain seized Armenian wealth. Through the close analysis of laws and treaties, it reveals that decrees issued during the genocide constitute central pillars of the Turkish system of property rights, retaining their legal validity, and although Turkey has acceded through international agreements to return Armenian properties, it continues to refuse to do so. The book demonstrates that genocides do not depend on the abolition of the legal system and elimination of rights, but that, on the contrary, the perpetrators of genocide manipulate the legal system to facilitate their plans.
This modern history of Armenia traces the influences promoting Armenian nationalism, and places the historical, cultural and social issues firmly in the contemporary context. It assesses the impact of changing political attitudes, and provides brief bibliographies of 120 leading Armenian figures.
A searing indictment of the Ottoman Turkish government for its brutal massacre and deportation of its Armenian population in 1915-1923 by Leslie Davis who as U. S. consul in Harput from 1915 to 1917 was an eyewitness to the atrocities committed upon Armenians. Much of what he saw could scarcely be told in ways that would be palatable to western sensibilities, for as he wrote: “It is hard for one living in a civilized country to believe that such things are possible; yet, as Lord Bryce has said, ‘Things which we find scarcely credible excite little surprise in Turkey.’” Nevertheless, his report survived to comprise The Slaughterhouse Province.
Recovering Armenia offers the first in-depth study of the aftermath of the 1915 Armenian Genocide and the Armenians who remained in Turkey. Following World War I, as the victorious Allied powers occupied Ottoman territories, Armenian survivors returned to their hometowns optimistic that they might establish an independent Armenia. But Turkish resistance prevailed, and by 1923 the Allies withdrew, the Turkish Republic was established, and Armenians were left again to reconstruct their communities within a country that still considered them traitors. Lerna Ekmekcioglu investigates how Armenians recovered their identity within these drastically changing political conditions. Reading Armenian texts and images produced in Istanbul from the close of WWI through the early 1930s, Ekmekcioglu gives voice to the community’s most prominent public figures, notably Hayganush Mark, a renowned activist, feminist, and editor of the influential journal Hay Gin
In September 1922, the richest city of the Mediterranean was burned, and countless numbers of Christian refugees killed. The city was Smyrna, and the event was the final episode of the 20th Century’s first genocide — the slaughter of three million Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians of the Ottoman Empire. The slaughter at Smyrna occurred as warships of the great powers stood by — the United States, Great Britain, France and Italy. The deaths of hundreds of thousands seemed inevitable until an American minister staged a bold rescue with the help of a courageous U.S. naval officer. Now, the forgotten story of one of the great humanitarian acts of history gets told.
The Armenian Genocide, though not given such prominent treatment as the Jewish Holocaust which it precedes, still haunts the Western world and has assumed a new significance in the light of “ethnic cleansing” in Bosnia and, more recently, Darfur. This study by the most distinguished scholar of the Armenian tragedy offers an authoritative analysis by presenting it as a case study of genocide and by seeing it as an historical process in which a domestic conflict escalated and was finally consumed by global war.
The first book to chronicle the aftermath of the twentieth century’s first genocide, this groundbreaking work recounts the Armenians’ struggle for justice in the face of fifty years of silence and denial. First comprehensive account: From 1915 to 1923, the Ottoman Turks drove two million Armenians from their ancestral homeland, slaughtering 1.5 million of them in the process.
The first genocide of the twentieth century remains unrecognized and unpunished. Turkey continues to deny the slaughter of over a million Ottoman Armenians in 1915 and the following years. What sets the Armenian genocide apart from other mass atrocities is that the country responsible has never officially acknowledged its actions, and no individual has ever been brought to justice. In Turkey and the Armenian Ghost, a translation of the award-winning La Turquie et le fantôme arménien, Laure Marchand and Guillaume Perrier visit historic sites and interview politicians, elderly survivors, descendants, authors, and activists in a quest for the hidden truth. Taking the reader into remote mountain regions, tiny hamlets, and the homes of traumatized victims of a deadly persecution that continues to this day, they reveal little-known aspects of the history and culture of a people who have been rendered invisible in their ancient homeland. They also describe the struggle to have the genocide officially recognized in Turkey, France, and the United States. Arguing that this giant cover-up has had consequences for Turks as well as for Armenians, the authors point to a society sickened by a century of denial. The face of Turkey is gradually changing, however, and a new generation of Turks is beginning to understand what happened and to realize that the ghost of the Armenian genocide must be recognized and laid to rest.
In a study that compares the major attempts at genocide in world history, Robert Melson creates a sophisticated framework that links genocide to revolution and war. He focuses on the plights of Jews after the fall of Imperial Germany and of Armenians after the fall of the Ottoman as well as attempted genocides in the Soviet Union and Cambodia. He argues that genocide often is the end result of a complex process that starts when revolutionaries smash an old regime and, in its wake, try to construct a society that is pure according to ideological standards.
This volume, the fourth by the author in her continuing study and analysis of Diasporan Armenian literature, shows how the shadow of the Genocide has surfaced in the works of second-generation Armenian writers to reflect a variety of reactions/responses conditioned by the individual’s perception of the past, in the context of his or her relationship with mainstream society and the dominant culture. The author examines a broad spectrum of responses, ranging from total immersion/assimilation to total commitment to the Cause. In some second-generation survivor-writers, the Armenian component remains dormant, at least in appearance; in others, it is gradually retrieved from a nebulous memory-hole to become an important dimension of their self-identity; in still others, the transmitted memory of images of suffering and death never loosens its grip and imposes upon everyday life. When coupled with the vague image of a lost homeland, a sense of deprivation, anger and frustration sets in and is further fueled by the perpetrator’s denial of the crime and distortion of history. Are healing and reconciliation possible? Even after one hundred years, the process is yet to begin. “Healing is denied to Armenians.” Second-generation Armenian artistic expressions thus echo the struggle to cast off the shadow of the past and challenge the present stance of the perpetrators and world bystanders
The Armenian Genocide that took place almost a century ago is now sliding into the past, but justice has not been rendered, and Armenians cannot put their dead to rest. Obsession with the past fueled by denial of the crime, the deniers’ distortion of history, and the image of a lost homeland that kindles a sense of deprivation keep surfacing in the literature produced in the Diaspora. The present volume engages with this discussion. It begins with the response of the first-generation writers who survived, to complement this author’s Literary Responses (1993) and to demonstrate more emphatically the depth of the initial psychological shock of the most recent traumatic experience as well as the soul-consuming struggle in dispersion.
The assassination of the author Hrant Dink in Istanbul in 2007, a high-profile advocate of Turkish-Armenian reconciliation, reignited the debate in Turkey on the annihilation of the Ottoman Armenians. Many Turks soon re-awakened to their Armenian heritage, reflecting on how their grandparents were forcibly Islamised and Turkified, and the suffering their families endured to keep their stories secret. There was public debate around Armenian property confiscated by the Turkish state and the extermination of the minorities. At last the silence had been broken. Open Wounds explains how, after the First World War, the new Turkish Republic forcibly erased the memory of the atrocities, and traces of Armenians, from their historic lands — a process to which the international community turned a blind eye. The price for this amnesia was, Vicken Cheterian argues, “a century of genocide.” Turkish intellectuals acknowledge the price society must pay collectively to forget such traumatic events, and that Turkey cannot solve its recurrent conflicts with its minorities — like the Kurds today — nor have an open and democratic society without addressi ng the original sin on which the state was founded: The Armenian Genocide.
After the Armenian genocide of 1915, in which over a million Armenians died, thousands of Armenians lived and worked in the Turkish state alongside those who had persecuted their communities. Living in the context of pervasive denial, how did Armenians remaining in Turkey record their own history? Here, Talin Suciyan explores the life experienced by these Armenian communities as Turkey’s modernisation project of the twentieth century gathered pace. Suciyan achieves this through analysis of remarkable new primary material: Turkish state archives, minutes of the Armenian National Assembly, a kaleidoscopic series of personal diaries, memoirs and oral histories, various Armenian periodicals such as newspapers, yearbooks and magazines, as well as statutes and laws which led to the continuing persecution of Armenians.
The Armenian Genocide and the Nazi Holocaust are often thought to be separated by a large distance in time and space. But Stefan Ihrig shows that they were much more connected than previously thought. Bismarck and then Wilhelm II staked their foreign policy on close relations with a stable Ottoman Empire. To the extent that the Armenians were restless under Ottoman rule, they were a problem for Germany too. From the 1890s onward Germany became accustomed to excusing violence against Armenians, even accepting it as a foreign policy necessity. For many Germans, the Armenians represented an explicitly racial problem and despite the Armenians’ Christianity, Germans portrayed them as the “Jews of the Orient.” As Stefan Ihrig reveals in this first comprehensive study of the subject, many Germans before World War I sympathized with the Ottomans’ longstanding repression of the Armenians and would go on to defend vigorously the Turks’ wartime program of extermination. The Nazis too came to see genocide as justifiable: in their version of history, the Armenian Genocide had made possible the astonishing rise of the New Turkey. Ihrig is careful to note that this connection does not imply the Armenian Genocide somehow caused the Holocaust, nor does it make Germans any less culpable. But no history of the twentieth century should ignore the deep, direct, and disturbing connections between these two crimes.
Therefore, God Must Be Armenian presents sixteen talks and public comments between 2007 and 2012, where Evans engaged the Armenian issue in no uncertain terms. He stood by his words in the hope of influencing official policy in the United States on the Armenian issue. Evans still stands firm in his belief that the United States should reoccupy the moral high ground regarding the Armenian Genocide of 1915 – as it did at the time of the events in question.
The Forty Days of Musa Dagh is Franz Werfel’s masterpiece that brought him international acclaim in 1933, drawing the world’s attention to the Armenian genocide. This is the story of how the people of several Armenian villages in the mountains along the coast of present-day Turkey and Syria chose not to obey the deportation order of the Turkish government. Instead, they fortified a plateau on the slopes of Musa Dagh Mount Moses and repelled Turkish soldiers and military police during the summer of 1915 while holding out hope for the warships of the Allies to save them.
This newly edited 2005 edition of 460 pages comprises more than 200 articles from The New York Times with bonus material from 1890-1909 reporting the massacres of Armenians in earlier periods, thus establishing the antecedents to the 1915 genocide. Also included are two analytical essays along with sixty full length articles from American periodicals of the time, including Ambassador Morgenthau’s story as it was first made public and many other important documents.
This handbook, prepared by the tireless efforts of Dr. Simon Payaslian of UCLA, provides both a historical perspective of the Genocide and an overview of international and national constraints in preventing the genocides that followed, highlighting the world’s inability to deal appropriately with the perpetrators of the Armenian tragedy. This book also provides teachers with maps, graphs and eyewitness accounts as well as valuable teaching aids such as worksheets, discussion and essay topics to maximize the student’s understanding of how the unspeakable can occur and recur even in contemporary times.
Crimes Against Humanity and Civilization: The Genocide of the Armenians combines the latest scholarship on the Armenian Genocide with an interdisciplinary approach to history, enabling students and teachers to make the essential connections between history and their own lives.